Wednesday, August 5, 2009

Software Engineering

Chapter 1

Nature of Software System:

  • Ubiquitious – variety of application: business, engineering & scientific applications
  • Simple to complex, internal to public, single function to enterprise wide, one location to distributed, batch or real-time, informational to mission critical.

Challenges in Large Projects:
lDeveloping large/complex software application is very challenging
  • Effort intensive
  • High cost
  • Long development time
  • Changing needs of users
  • High risk of failure, user acceptance, performance, maintainability
Quite different from one-time program where authors and users are the same

lS/ware development projects have not always been successful

lWhat is successful software applications?

  • Development completed
  • It is useful
  • It is usable and
  • It is used
  • Cost effectiveness and maintainability applied

  • lSchedule slippage
  • Cost over-runs
  • Does not solve user’s problem
  • Poor quality of software
  • Poor maintainability
Ad-hoc software development…

  • No planning (e.g. no milestones defined)
  • Deliverables to users not identified
  • Poor understanding of user requirements
  • No control or review
  • Technical or incompetence of developers
  • Poor understanding of cost and effort by both developer and user.

  1. lRequires well-defined approach – repeatable, predictable
  2. Large projects require managing the project itself
  • Manage project, people, money (cost), equipment, schedule
  • Scale makes big difference .. Compare building hut, 2-storey house, large condominium/hotel
3. Quality extremely important: relates to failures, efficiency, usability ..
  • People are willing to pay for quality!
Large Projects…

l# Involve different types of people
  • Large building: architects, civil engineer, electrical engineer, workers (carpenters..etc)
l# Continuous supervision for quality assurance
  • On site supervisors (check cement/ steel quality.. Etc. )
l# Many deliverables: architecture plan, model, structure diagrams, electrical cabling layout etc.

l# Standards, regulations, conventions need to be followed.

l# Steps, milestones define and reviews are carried out, progress is visible

Creativity and Innovation.....


  • Ability to produce new & original idea & thing
  • Anything that someone does in a Way that is original to the creator & that is appropriate to the purpose or goal of the creator.
Creative and innovative thinking

  • Kind that leads to new insights,novel approaches,fresh perspectives,whole new ways of understanding & conceiving of thing.
  • not ability to create out of nothing.
Creativity Involves:-

  • An ability (i.e imagine, invent something new)
  • An attitude( i.e the ability to accept changes & newness)
  • A visualizing act
  • having a vision for an idea.
  • everything around us is a product of innovation
  • doing something different
What are stimulations to creativity???????????
  • Organizational encouragement
  • supervisory encouragement
  • supportive work group
  • sufficient resources
  • challenging work
Obstacles to creativity
  • Organizational implements(minimize internal politics problems)
  • workload pressure(avoid unrealistic time pressures and expectations for productivity)